Help Icon

AUX8823

Course
AUX8823
Course Title
NCSI/OBD II Initial

Description

This class trains technicians to inspect North Carolina vehicles on all rules and regulations for OBD II testing.

 

Objectives

Upon completion technicians will be licensees to inspect vehicles registered in the state of North Carolina for OBD II.

Content

Training Requirements

North Carolina General Statutes (NCGS) Chapter 20-183.4A(c) Mechanic Qualifications. - An applicant for a license as an emissions inspection mechanic must meet all of the following requirements:

(1) Have a license as a safety inspection mechanic.

Training Requirements

(2) In the Counties of Cabarrus, Durham, Forsyth, Gaston, Guilford, Mecklenburg, Orange, Union, and Wake, have successfully completed an eight-hour course approved by the Division that teaches students about the causes and effects of the air pollution problem; the purpose of the emissions inspection program; the vehicle emission standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; the emission control devices on vehicles; how to conduct an emissions inspection using an emissions analyzer approved by the Environmental Management Commission, equipment to analyze data provided by the on-board diagnostic (OBD) equipment approved by the Environmental Management Commission, or both; and any other topic required by 40 C.F.R. § 51.367 to be included in the course. Successful completion requires a passing score on a written test and on a hands-on test in which the student is required to conduct an emissions inspection of a motor vehicle.

Training Requirements

(2a) Have successfully completed an eight-hour course approved by the Division that teaches students about the causes and effects of the air pollution problem, the purpose of the emissions inspection program, the vehicle emission standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the emission control devices on vehicles, how to conduct an emissions inspection using equipment to analyze data provided by the on-board diagnostic (OBD) equipment approved by the Environmental Management Commission, and any other topic required by 40 C.F.R. § 51.367 to be included in the course. Successful completion requires a passing score on a written test and on a hands-on test in which the student is required to conduct an emissions inspection of a motor vehicle.

Training Requirements

20-183.4B(c) Renewal of Mechanic License. - A safety or an emissions inspection mechanic may apply to renew a license by filing an application with the Division on a form provided by the Division. To renew an emissions inspection mechanic license, an applicant must have successfully completed a four-hour emissions refresher course approved by the Division within nine months of applying for renewal. Successful completion requires a passing score on a written test and on a hands-on test in which the student is required to conduct an emissions inspection of a motor vehicle.

Certification Training Session  Summary (number of hours):

OBD Emissions Inspection

New Certification with or without current Tailpipe Certification - 8 hours

Certification Renewal - 4 hours

Inspection Certification is valid for:

  • OBD Emissions Inspection - 2 years
  • Tailpipe Emissions Inspection - 2 years
  • Safety Inspection - 4 years

If you currently hold an NCIM (tailpipe) license.  Please write your license number at the top of FORM LT-310

STATE STATUTES, VIOLATIONS & FEE SCHEDULESThe following information related to Emissions Violations for stations and mechanics comes from the North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Motor Vehicles Enforcement Section Emissions Inspection Penalty Schedule for Licensed Safety/Emission and Safety/Emission/OBD Inspection Stations N.C.G.S. 20-183.8

Infractions and Criminal Offenses for Violations of
Inspection Requirements

3. Felony: A person who does any of the following commits a Class I felony:

(a) Forges an inspection sticker.

(b) Buys, sells, or possesses a forged inspection sticker.

(c) Buys, sells, or possesses an inspection sticker other than as the result of either of the following:

(i) Having a license as an inspection station, a self-inspector, or an inspection mechanic and obtaining the inspection sticker from the Division in the course of business.

OBD Inspection Fee Schedule

Total Inspection Fee of $6.50 (minimum) and $30 (maximum) if the vehicle PASSES!

Since January 2002 the Inspection Station is allowed to charge between $0-$23.50. (House Bill 969)

Refer to Note 7

 It’s still $10.00 for after-factory tint checks.

ALL 1996 AND NEWER VEHICLES WILL BE OBD I/M INSPECTED

Until January 1, 2005
1978-1995 all vehicles still receive the N.C. I/M tailpipe test in the original
9 I/M Counties

Display Posters

Don’t forget to display the OBD INFORMATION POSTERS TO BE VIEWED BY THE PUBLIC

5 Major Factors Have Contributed to the Decline in Vehicle Emissions

  • Vehicle Technology Advancements
  • Cleaner Fuels
  • Evolving Vehicle Emission Standards
  • Enforcing and Validating Manufacturer's Compliance to Emission Standards
  • Effective Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Programs

Vehicle Technology Advancements

  • Redesigned engines for increased combustion efficiency:
  • Sequential fuel injection for more accurate fuel delivery
  • Improved fuel injector performance over wider fuel pressure ranges (to accommodate returnless fuel systems with no vacuum compensated pressure regulator) with better fuel atomization resulting in more complete fuel vaporization and a more structured fuel charge distributed throughout the combustion chamber
  • High-efficiency ignition coil per cylinder for more accurate spark timing control
  • Multivalve cylinder heads with improved combustion chamber designs
  • Variable valve timing/lift systems

Vehicle Technology Advancements

  • Improved emission control systems and sensors:
  • Improved three-way catalyst designs with increased efficiency of operation over a broader range of air:fuel ratios
  • Wide range air/fuel ratio (A/F) sensors
  • NOx sensors (near future) used for enhanced catalyst efficiency determination

Cleaner Fuels

  • New gasoline formulations reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • Reduction of sulfur in gasoline and diesel fuels
  • Sulfur deactivates catalysts used on both gasoline and diesel engines
  • Sulfur compounds react with moisture in the atmosphere to create sulfuric acid
  • Beginning 2004                            
  • 120 ppm average with 300 ppm cap      
  • By 2006                              
  • 30 ppm average with 80 ppm cap

Cleaner Fuels

  • Oxygenated Fuels
  • Used to reduce CO emissions
  • Effective while engine is operating in Open Loop (Exhaust Oxygen Sensor signal is not used) or on older vehicles without Closed Loop capability
  • Cold start CO emissions are lower

Enforcing and Validating Manufacturer's Compliance to Emission Standards

  • Initial certification originally done by EPA, now vehicle manufacturers do their own FTP certification
  • Allows greater flexibility in research, development and production
  • Vehicles are available for sale sooner
  • Selective Enforcement Audits (SEA) are very important to EPA and CARB to ensure vehicle manufacturers are doing a good job
  • If abused by vehicle manufacturers exist, they lose their ability to self-certify, costing more $$ and much more time

Early Compliance to Future Emission Level Requirements

  • Vehicle manufacturers are currently producing and selling vehicles that meet future emission standards.
  • For example: ULEV vehicles were not required until 2001 but some were available in 1999
  • By marketing "green" vehicles prior to required phase in schedules, vehicle manufacturers are helping to reduce vehicle emissions at a faster rate than required

Effective National Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Programs

  • Designed to ensure vehicles stay clean throughout their useful life
  • Involves the driving public and encourages vehicle maintenance to help ensure vehicle passes the I/M test
  • Discourages emissions system tampering
  • Clean air benefits of improved technology can only be realized if the vehicle is in proper working order

Why do we need OBD technology?

  • To reduce volume of pollution to compensate for increases in population and vehicle miles traveled

Additional Challenges

  • To further improve air quality, additional challenges exist in regards to vehicle malfunctions that impact emissions.  These challenges include:
  • Reduce the time between an occurrence of a malfunction and it’s detection and repair
  • Provide early warning of the detected malfunction to prevent drivability problems or more costly repairs down the road
  • Provide a means for effective malfunction diagnosis and repair/repair verification

Additional Challenges

  • To address these challenges, EPA included regulations in the Clean Air Act that “…requires OBD systems to monitor emission-related components for malfunctions or deterioration which render vehicles incapable of complying with the emission standards established.”
  • These regulations are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 86.094-17 and California Air Resources Board (CARB) documents 1968.1 and 1968.2

What is OBD?

OBD consists of:

  • PCM
  • Related input and output components
  • Monitored Emission Control Systems
  • Diagnostic Link Connector (DLC)
  • Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL)
  • Commonly referred to as the “Check Engine” Light

OBD Design Criteria

If the OBD system detects a singular problem that may cause vehicle emissions to exceed 1.5 (see note) times the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) standards, the MIL is illuminated and the appropriate Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) and engine operating conditions (Freeze Frame) will be stored in PCM memory.

Meeting the Challenges

  • Vehicle in-use emission evaluations are improved over current testing methods due to:
  • OBD being directly related to the FTP so on-board testing is done in a manner more consistent with initial vehicle certification
  • Lower fail thresholds based directly on FTP certification standards
  • Emission control systems being tested as often as possible (dependant upon vehicle operating conditions) during actual vehicle operation as opposed  to the annual or biannual tailpipe test conducted under simulated driving conditions that do not necessarily reflect actual driving conditions

Meeting the Challenges

  • Warning of the malfunction is provided as soon as the malfunction is confirmed:
  • MIL illumination is now a standardized indication that an emissions related malfunction exists
  • MIL usage is limited to only indicating emission related malfunctions exist; the MIL is not allowed to be used for any other purpose such as a service reminder light
  • By responding to the MIL and having the vehicle repaired, the vehicle operator reduces the amount of time the vehicle is operated with the malfunction present and the amount of pollution contributed to the environment
  • May prevent other malfunctions and drivability concerns from occurring such as a prematurely deteriorated catalytic converter due to increased loads caused by the original malfunction

Meeting the Challenges

  • Malfunction Diagnosis and Repair/Repair Verification is enhanced through stored malfunction related information:
  • DTCs
  • Identification of which system is experiencing the malfunction
  • Freeze Frame Data
  • Vehicle operating conditions present when the malfunction was detected

OBD and the FTP

  • By regulation, the OBD system must detect a malfunction that causes vehicle emissions to exceed applicable limits which are based on FTP standards.
  • The FTP (around since the 1970s) is the test procedure used to determine compliance to applicable emission standards by vehicles sold in the U.S.
  • The FTP is intended to represent typical driving patterns.
  • Preproduction, production line and in-use vehicles are tested to verify vehicles meet FTP standards

OBD and the FTP

  • The FTP is designed to test the vehicle under several different simulated operating conditions and measure evaporative and exhaust emissions.
  • The Diurnal Evaporative Emission (Heat Build) Test Procedure is designed to heat the fuel system and measure evaporative emissions
  • The Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) is designed to measure tailpipe and evaporative emissions.  The UDDS consists of three phases:
  • Cold Start Phase
  • Transient Phase
  • Hot Start Phase

FTP Drive Cycles

  • The test procedure consists of three parts:
  • Cold start (“Bag 1”): 3.6 miles; 25.6 mph
  • Stabilized (“Bag 2”): 3.9 miles; 16.2 mph
  • Hot start (“Bag 3”): 3.6 miles; 25.6 mph
  • FTP (length): 30.8 min

OBD Implementation

  • A form of OBD was originally implemented in the 1980's as a California requirement for vehicles sold in the state of California.
  • The first generation of OBD (OBD I) included (but did not standardize):
  • DTCs
  • Operation, structure and meaning varied between vehicle manufacturers
  • MIL
  • Operation, appearance and meaning varied between vehicle manufacturers
  • DLC
  • Not standardized in location, functionality, form or usage (not all vehicles had a DLC)
  • Data communication
  • Each vehicle manufacturer used their own protocols

OBD Implementation

In summary:

  • OBD I was adopted in 1985 to be implemented by 1988 in California vehicles.
  • Federal OBD (and California OBD II) was adopted in 1989 for 1994 and later model year vehicles.
  • OBD (II) phase-in started with the 1994 model year with full compliance by 1996 model year for:
  • California vehicles up to 14,000 lbGVWR
  • Federal vehicles up to 8,500 lbGVWR (over 8,500 lbs not standardized)

OBD Implementation

  • OBD I was adopted in 1985 to be implemented by 1988 in California vehicles.
  • Federal OBD (and California OBD II) was adopted in 1989 for 1994 and later model year vehicles.
  • OBD (II) phase-in started with the 1994 model year with full compliance by 1996 model year for:
  • California vehicles up to 14,000 lbGVWR
  • Federal vehicles up to 8,500 lbGVWR (over 8,500 lbs not standardized)
  • For North Carolina, 1996 model year and newer gasoline powered passenger and light duty trucks participate in the OBD I/M emissions testing program

 

The following OBD I/M test equipment have been certified by N.C. D.E.N.R. for use in the NC OBD I/M Emissions testing program

World Wide          Systech

ESP                    SPX

Snap-on/Sun

EASE

Steps of the OBD I/M Test

  • A visual inspection of MIL illumination as the ignition key is turned to the run position with the engine off (KOEO) for a bulb check (does or does not illuminate)
  • Ignition key turned off
  • Connection of the OBD I/M test equipment to the vehicle's DLC
  • Starting the engine
  • Serial data communication between the on-board computer system and the OBD I/M test equipment with the following data being transmitted:
  • MIL command (either "ON" or "OFF")
  • If MIL is commanded "ON", DTCs are transmitted (if the MIL is commanded "OFF", DTCs are not transmitted)
  • Applicable Readiness Codes and current state (either "Ready" or "Not Ready")

OBDII Test Results Box in VIR/S

MIL

  • Appearance
  • Location
  • Operation
  • DLC
  • Appearance
  • Location
  • Serial data (vehicle communication network)
  • Operation

Malfunction Indicator Lamp
(MIL)

  • ØPurpose: To notify the vehicle operator when an emissions related malfunction occurs

MIL

  • ØWhat to look for:

“Service Engine Soon”

“Service Powertrain Soon”

“Check Engine”

MIL Operation

MIL in OBD I/M

  • MIL should illuminate (at least briefly) as a bulb check during ignition key on, engine off (KOEO)
  • If OBD I/M Inspector-Mechanic cannot confirm MIL on during this bulb check (due to short illumination time), the Inspector-Mechanic should turn the ignition key off (wait 12 seconds) and then repeat this step of the OBD I/M test procedure.  If the Inspector-Mechanic indicates the MIL did not illuminate during the KOEO step, the vehicle will FAIL the OBD I/M test

 MIL in OBD I/M

  • §Engine must be running before communication is established with the vehicle OBD system due to inconsistencies between vehicle manufacturers PCM MIL Command during KOEO.  Some have the PCM MIL Command “ON” during KOEO even though no emission related faults exist

MIL in OBD I/M

  • PCM MIL Command OFF indicates no emission related faults exist
  • PCM MIL Command ON indicates emission related faults exist and the vehicle will FAIL the OBD I/M test
  • MIL Command data printed on the VIR/S in the MIL Commanded-On section will be displayed as either Yes (MIL is commanded on) or No (MIL is not commanded on)

Diagnostic Link Connector (DLC)

  • Provides the physical and electrical connections necessary for communication between the vehicle and OBD I/M test equipment
  • Shape is standard for all OBD vehicles
  • Connector color varies between vehicle manufacturers

DLC Appearance

DLC Location Map

Serial Data Communication in OBD I/M

  • If communication between the vehicle OBD system and the OBD I/M test equipment is not possible, the vehicle FAILs the OBD I/M inspection and the fault condition must be repaired before further OBD I/M inspection is possible

 Controller Area Network (CAN)

  • Beginning with model year 2003, vehicle manufacturers began phasing in the CAN communication protocol
  • Complete phase in by 2008
  • The OBD I/M test equipment  automatically detects and conforms to the vehicle communication protocol (1996 and newer vehicles)
  • ØReset can occur by:
  • PCM loss of connection to battery positive or negative circuit(s)
  • Battery voltage below a minimum value
  • DTC information clear procedure
  • EEPROM Reprogramming
  • If too many Readiness Codes are “Not Ready”, vehicle is REJECTED from further testing due to undetermined status of too many emission control systems: FAULTS MAY OR MAY NOT BE PRESENT- system evaluations must be performed by the OBD II SYSTEM during the proper vehicle operating conditions
  • Being REJECTED does not constitute a failure of the OBD I/M test! Repairs are not necessary at this point, there is not enough information to make that determination

OBD I/M Test
Readiness Code Allowance

Sample page if too many Readiness Codes are “Not Ready”

General Operating Conditions to set Readiness Codes to “Ready”

Although each OBD system has unique programming, there are certain basic guidelines that can be used to meet enable criteria for a majority of OBD monitors:

  • Fuel level between 25% and 75%
  • Ambient air (Intake Air Temperature - IAT) and Engine Coolant (ECT) temperatures between 40°F (4.4°C) and 90°F (32.2°C) at engine start-up
  • IAT and ECT within 5°F (2.8°C) of each other at engine start-up
  • Steady cruise at 40mph - 60mph (~64kph - ~97kph) for (approximately) five minutes after engine has reached normal operating temperatures
  • Deceleration from (approximately) 60mph (~97kph) with no brake or clutch for ten or more seconds (this deceleration may need to be repeated, depending on deceleration rates)
  • Idle for (approximately) one minute following the steady cruise
  • Ignition key in the "LOCK" position for five minutes or longer after the previous conditions have been met

Drive Cycles

  • Specific drive cycles are being provided by vehicle manufacturers
  • The EPA funded OBD Clearinghouse (http://obdclearinghouse.com) is posting these drive cycles as they become available

OBD Not-Ready Form (LT-318)

OBD Not-Ready Form

  • Available only for applicable vehicles
  • Vehicle must go through an initial inspection and receive a Not-Ready Rejection inspection receipt
  • Vehicle owner can obtain the OBD Not-Ready Form from the nearest License and Theft Bureau office
  • Important: The Not-Ready rejection inspection receipt must be presented to the License and Theft Bureau before obtaining the OBD Not-Ready Form

OBD Not-Ready Form

After obtaining the OBD Not-Ready Form, the vehicle owner is to return to the inspection station where steps 2 through 4 should be completed as outlined

OBD Not-Ready Form

  • Once the form is properly completed, return to the local License and Theft Bureau office for review

OBD Not-Ready Form

  • If approved,  vehicle and  form should return to the inspection station for completion of the OBD I/M inspection

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) in OBD I/M

  • DTCs identify failures and general location of the failure (enhances the M of I/M)
  • DTCs will only be retrieved from the vehicle OBD system if the MIL Command is ON
  • DTCs printed on the VIR/S may be standardized or vehicle manufacturer specific
  • Standardized DTCs will have a short description listed
  • Manufacturer specific DTCs will be listed without a description

DTC Structure

P 0 0 75

North Carolina OBD I/M Inspection  Outcome Possibilities  (Summary)

  • To PASS the OBD I/M inspection, all of the following must occur:
  • Bulb check must pass
  • DLC must be accessible and functioning
  • Serial data communication must be possible
  • MIL COMMAND “OFF”
  • Required Readiness Codes set to “Ready”
  • To FAIL the OBD I/M inspection, any single or combination of the following must occur:
  • Bulb check failure
  • MIL COMMAND “ON”
  • DLC missing, tampered or inoperable
  • No serial data communication
  • To be REJECTED from the OBD I/M inspection, either of the following must occur:
  • DLC inaccessible or cannot be located
  • MIL COMMAND “OFF” and not enough Readiness Codes set to “Ready”

OBD I/M Inspection FAIL

  • An OBD I/M inspection FAIL result is due to a malfunction that requires repair before vehicle re-inspection can occur

Note: Vehicle emission warranty information is available from the vehicle operators manual.  Warranty coverage varies between vehicle manufacturers but is required by EPA to be a minimum of 2 years/24,000 miles with extended coverage for specified major emission control components:

  • Catalytic Converters
  • The electronic emissions control unit or computer (ECU)
  • The onboard emissions diagnostic device or computer (OBD)

Refer to http://www.epa.gov/otaq/epg/tamper.htm for additional emissions related warranty information

OBD I/M Inspection REJECTED

  • An OBD I/M inspection REJECTED result is due to the vehicle being in a “Not Ready” condition due to either:
  • A lack of communication accessibility (DLC obstructed or not located)
  • Too many emission control systems with undetermined operational states resulting in too many Readiness Codes “Not Ready”

OBD I/M Inspection REJECTED Due To Lack of Communication Accessibility 

  • If the DLC cannot be readily located, refer to DLC Mapping Diagram
  • If the DLC is not in the OEM certified position,  the DLC has been tampered with and must be corrected (with customer consent)
  • If obstructed, the DLC obstruction must be removed (with customer consent)

OBD I/M Inspection REJECTED Due To Lack of Readiness 

  • Vehicle must be operated in such a way as to meet the enable criteria for at least a minimum number of monitors to operate and set the related Readiness Codes to “Ready”
  • Refer to http://obdclearinghouse.com for manufacturer specific details

OBD I/M Inspection Waiver

§ 20-183.5. When a vehicle that fails an emissions inspection may obtain a waiver from the inspection requirement.

(a)(For amendment to subsection (a) effective January 1, 2006, see notes.) Requirements. - The Division may issue a waiver for a vehicle that meets all of the following requirements:

(1) Fails an emissions inspection because it passes the visual inspection but fails the analysis of exhaust emissions or the analysis of data provided by the on-board diagnostic (OBD) equipment.

(2) Has documented repairs costing at least the waiver amount made to the vehicle to correct the cause of the failure. The waiver amount is seventy-five dollars ($75.00) if the vehicle is a pre-1981 model and is two hundred dollars ($200.00) if the vehicle is a 1981 or newer model.

(3) Is reinspected and again fails the inspection because it passes the visual inspection but fails the analysis of exhaust emissions or the analysis of data provided by the on-board diagnostic (OBD) equipment.

Refer to NCGS 20-183.5 for complete details

                       

Prerequisites

None

Method of Instruction

Lecture

Evaluation

  1. Exam:  Yes, with a score of 80 or better
  2. Demonstration of Skills: Yes
  3. Class Participation:  no